War, as well as love, accompanies mankind since time immemorial and after the part dedicated to love songs, there comes another part of the Anthology of Moravian Folk Music which introduces less joyful songs. Songs about leaving to military service and war are in their lyrics full of defiance and sadness, they have mostly gloomy mood but sometimes a bit mischievous too. This selection offers listeners instrumental, solo and chorus sung “verbuňks“ and recruiting (“rekrutské/regrútské/legrútské”) songs. This is the seventh part of the reflection on the contemporary form of folk music-making both in small and large Moravian folk regions.
„Slovácko region “verbuňk” (recruitment song) is one of the most elaborate (and most variable) male solo dances of Southeast Moravia, also known far beyond the borders of the original region; its popularity (sparked off by many years of competing for the best dancer of Slovácko verbuňk in regional qualifying rounds, which traditionally culminate at the Strážnice festival) made it a phenomenon which reached the top when this dance was written in the UNESCO list of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity UNESCO in 2005; in Bohemia and Moravia, it was the first award of this kind. Since 2008, Slovácko verbuňk is also introduced in the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.“
The Anthology of Moravian Folk Music is an extensive project which has presented in previous six parts already over 180 tracks the contemporary form of Moravian folk music. The seventh part adds another thirty pieces of this vast mosaic. In the 24 page booklet in Czech and English, you can find basic characteristics and history of recruiting in our country. There is also an explanation of why “verbuňk” is such a unique dance that it was included in the UNESCO list, as well as notes on selected songs or various medallions, musical ensembles, musicians and singing personalities included on the album. On the fully stacked CD, listeners can find a selection of the most interesting “verbuňks” and recruiting songs.
The sixth and seventh selection, just like the previous fifth part (Time of Advent and Christmas), are thematically focused. In contrast, the first four parts of the project are divided according to regions. Also these parts are completed with a legend in the 28 page booklet in Czech and English, outlining the musical history of a particular region. Altogether, they form 400 minutes of listening to contemporary folk recordings. This epic edition of the Anthology of Moravian Folk Music of the beginning of the 21st century is an attempt to introduce the current form of folk music both in large and small Moravian folk regions.
Verbuňk & Anthology of Moravian folklore:
In general, verbuňk has three dance phases: 1. Prelude of the song (usually in slow tempo) – dancers are standing in a loose semicircle in front of the band, singing (both solo and unison) with musicians, holding each other either behind their backs or with their hands on the shoulders; they are swaying to the rhythm of songs, their free hands are raised in an accentuating gesture. 2. Free dance part (so called “válaný verbuňk”) – the band is playing the tune in the same tempo, many dancers are loosening up, everybody is dancing their own figures (without jumps and kneeling on the ground, moderately), squats, short dodges, clapping their hands, tapping on boots. They are dancing with wide open arms. 3. Fast dance part (so called “na odrážku”, “friška”) – the music speeds up dramatically, the dancers individually dance “cifra” – jumps, dramatic leaps alternate with loosened postures all the way to crouching in kneeling accompanied with stamping, clapping, sharp dodges, tapping at palms, boots, on the ground, accompanied with expressive gestures and shouting in the end.
Gradually, the six basic types of singing, musical and dance form of Slovácko verbuňk stabilized and in the second half of the 20th century formally codified within the different sub-regions: Strážnice region (from Strážnice and the surrounding area, kyjov region (from around the town Kyjov), Haná-Slovácko region (from around the towns Hustopeče and Ždánice), Horňácko region (from around Velká nad Veličkou), uherské Hradiště region (around Uherské Hradiště and Uherský Brod) and Podluží region (from around Břeclav town). They differ in regional specifics: for example, people of Strážnice have so called “strážnická cifra“ with an upright posture and leg crossing, in Kyjov region, they prefer the part of leg above the instep and their characterictic dance figure is the transition from standing to a squat with a turn, the Haná Slovakians use rather small “cifra” on one spot and slapping their shins. Horňácko region verbuňk is based on the dance elements of the “horňácko-sedlácká“ peasant dance – it is tighter and more space efficient, with smaller cifras and minimum nuber of jumps. On the other hand, around Hradiště and Brod, verbuňk is full of jumps and turns; a popular dance figure is a leap from squatting to leg stretching and tapping the boot of the stretched leg. The most widespread and most variable is the verbuňk in Podluží region; for this area the typical figure is upright stance, half turns and turns while dancing. Yet for all the dancers and singers (while respecting the fundamental regional specifications) individuality, creativity and skill in dancing is valued also in the choice of songs. For the overall quality of the performance, the song is as important as the choice of specific dance figures.
Our most representative selection, within our possibilities, offers listeners instrumental, both solo and in chorus sung verbuňk and recruit/”regrútské”/”legrútské”, i.e. recruitment songs from Horňácko, Strážnicko, Uherský Brod, Uherské Hradiště, Kyjov, Podluží, Haná Slovácko all the way to Valašsko regions. Most often, the lyrics are both of grim and mischievous military nature (from the act of recruitment and subsequent drastic imprisonment of recruits in shod cars to traveling to near or distant barracks for training, pride in their own military horse, rebellion against feudal despotism, fear of being drafted to battle field to the pain of loosing a friend-fellow fighter), many of them mention the sad farewell not only with beloved girl, but also with parents, with the mother – military service lasted many years and opting out early was possible only at the cost of life, or at least in case of a severe injury with permanent disablement, so hopes for reunion were minimal. Even death was present in these songs – it was, unfortunately, often a common part of military life – and a plea for remembrance, prayer, a flower for a grave, if there was one. Soldiers served the Emperor or other master until the last drop of blood – sometimes ironically, often literally. Often the most beautiful memorial was the song and it remained – for us as well.
|01 Ňorkův verbuňk||02:03||€ 0.38|
|02 Na dolinách pod lipami||02:44||€ 0.38|
|03 Tenkrát má mamička najvěčí žel||01:31||€ 0.38|
|04 Kebyste to, mamko moja, vedeli||02:11||€ 0.38|
|05 Pri Prešpúrku, pri Dunaji||02:42||€ 0.38|
|06 Na tú svatú katerinskú nedělu||02:16||€ 0.38|
|07 Brodił Jano koně||02:19||€ 0.38|
|08 Brodí Jano koně||02:46||€ 0.38|
|09 Janíčka vezú v okovaném vozi||03:24||€ 0.38|
|10 Až pojedu z Písku||01:56||€ 0.38|
|11 Proč kalino v struze stójíš||02:04||€ 0.38|
|12 Proč kalino v struze stójíš||02:51||€ 0.38|
|13 Žalo dívča, žalo trávu||02:51||€ 0.38|
|14 Hromy bijú||02:44||€ 0.38|
|15 Když nás odváďali v tom Uherském Brodě||02:04||€ 0.38|
|16 A v tom Brodě při Olšavě malovaná kasárňa||02:47||€ 0.38|
|17 Tá Prešporská brána||02:59||€ 0.38|
|18 Tí kyjovští páni pod míru ně vzali||03:16||€ 0.38|
|19 Až já smutný půjdu na tú vojnu||04:53||€ 0.38|
|20 Já su stárek svobodný||02:15||€ 0.38|
|21 Ej, už nás vezú v okutém vozi||03:06||€ 0.38|
|22 Až pojedu přes Tuřany||03:05||€ 0.38|
|23 Verbuňky z Hanáckého Slovácka||01:20||€ 0.38|
|24 U Dunaja šaty prala, plakala||02:08||€ 0.38|
|25 Pod Veronú, pod tým kopcem||04:17||€ 0.38|
|26 Až já půjdu na tú vojnu kuruckú||02:41||€ 0.38|
|27 Malolhocké pěkné pole||02:16||€ 0.38|
|28 Dostal sem koníčka, koňa vraného||01:49||€ 0.38|
|29 Tá moja mamička||02:17||€ 0.38|
|30 Měla maměnka velikú žel||01:39||€ 0.38|